Category Archives: Underwater

Technology that can be used to record Archaeology and Cultural Heritage underwater.

Kodak PixPro SP360 Action Cam

The Kodak PixPro SP360 is an action camera aimed at the extreme sports recording market.

It is able to record 360º 10MP photographs and Full HD 1080p Video using its curved lens. Using the Pixpro Remote Viewer App it connects to other devices with iOS, Android or Windows operating systems using Wi-fi and NFC (Near Field Communication) allowing both control of the camera and viewing of the images/videos. The images/vidoes can be viewed in a number of different modes – ring, dome, front 180º and rear 180º, 360º panorama and globe. The system also has motion detector sensor which starts recording when motion is detected.

Much like the GoPro camera the system comes with a number of accessories for attaching it to different devices as well as a waterproof case which aare available in the different bundles.

The PixPro SP360 costs $349 for the Explorer bundle for entry-level and the Aqua bundle for watersports and $399 for the Extreme Accessories bundle.

Potential
The camera is able to record much more than a standard camera without the requirement for multiple cameras and the images/videos created can be viewed/exported in a number of different modes. It is water resistant, can be attached to a UAV or a person allowing a wide range of recording possibilities.

Limitations
Although the system can record a 360º view images/videos with the camera pointing upwards it is only able to record a 214º images/videos while pointing towards a subject. The distortion of a domed lens may also impact on the quality of the results.

Advertisements

GoPro HERO

The GoPro HERO is a new budget camera in the GoPro range. It takes 5MP (mega pixels) photos which can be recorded up to 5 frames a second and records video at 1080p30 and 720p60. With its rugged case it is waterproof to 40m.

The interface has been made easier with the new QuikCature mode which allows the user to power on the camera and start recording by pressing a single button. Pressing once records video, while holding the button down for 2 seconds starts to capture time lapse photos.

http://shop.gopro.com/EMEA/cameras/hero/CHDHA-301.html

The GoPro HERO costs £99.99.

Potential
The GoPro HERO has much of the same potential as the GoPro HERO4 which can be read here.

At only £100 its potential for budget wearable technology in archaeology is enhanced greatly, with the cost of 3 GoPro Heros being less than 1 GoPro Hero4.

Limitations
Up until now one of the major limitations of the GoPro has been the price, but with a GoPro costing £99.99 this drawback has been removed.

There are limitations to this budget model though, the camera is only 5MP as opposed to the GoPro HERO4 which is 12MP, which is quite a low level of recording for a modern digital camera. It will limit the amount of information recorded in a photograph, and hence any 3D models created from the results.

GoPro HERO4

The GoPro HERO4 is a new camera in the GoPro range, it consists of two separate models, the silver and the black.

Silver

The silver model includes a built-in touch-screen display, previously this had been available as an extra which connected to the back of the camera, the black model does not come with this.

It captures photographs with its 12MP camera at speeds up to 30fps and records video at 1080p60 and 720p120.

Black

Professional Video up to 4K30

It captures photographs with its 12MP camera at speeds up to 30fps and records video at 4K30, 2.7K50 and 1080p120.

Both models have built-In Wi-Fi + Bluetooth allowing connection and control from other devices using the GoPro App, Smart Remote2 and more.

With their rugged case they are waterproof to 40m.

The silver version of the camera is £289.99 while the back is £369.99.

Potential
The GoPro camera was designed with the extreme sports industry in mind, but it has since find a place in a number of other disciplines.

The size, weight and portability of the GoPro camera has meant that is had become the mainstay of the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) industry with the camera becoming standard on many quadcopters. The user can see what the camera sees by either using the on-board wi-fi and an app on tablet computers or phones; or a fpv (first person view) system which can be sent wirelessly to either a video monitor or video goggles. Motorised gimbals can be used to both, stablise the camera to remove any shake caused by the UAV, and to change the direction the camera is pointing in mid flight.

The GoPro also has great potential as wearable technology in the trench:

  • The camera comes with a number of mounts out of the box, including ones that can attach to hardhats, but other mounts are available including a chest harness. These could be used to record the excavation process by attaching GoPro camera to the archaeologist excavating; the video could be used to record video but the individual video frames, or photographs, could be used to create a 3D photogrammetry model of the excavation. The combination of head and chest mounted camera may provide enough images to make an accurate model of the excavation. The rugged plastic housing can protect the camera from anything that it comes across in the trench.
  • If a complicated or important excavation was being undertaken or an important artifact was being lifted the excavator could have a live conference with an expert who could advise them on the best way to excavate it.
  • Experimentation with aspects of wearable technology has been undertaken on the Portus Project in Italy under the auspices of the University of Southampton.

The use of the GoPro is not limited to a single camera, the Dual HERO System is a case that allows two GoPro camera to be put side by side which allows 3D footage to be created using the GoPro Studio editing software.

GoPro Dual HERO System

The 360heros series of GoPro mounts clips a number of cameras together allowing spherical video recording with up to 14 GoPro cameras, the videos recorded can be stitched together in video stitching software to create immersive 360˚ videos. Mounts are available for everything from the top of helmets, to UAVs, underwater recording and even for recording 360˚ 3D with 14 GoPro cameras.

The system can record immersive videos on the ground, in the air and underwater which can viewed in a video player online – http://video.360heros.com/website/users/webplayer/videodetails.php?vid=59

The Freedom360 provides a similar system.

A GoPro has even been attached to a shovel while archaeology is being undertaken – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ht0RR94O9jY&feature=youtu.be

It has been used in underwater test of sfm (structure from motion) – http://arc-team-open-research.blogspot.co.uk/2013/03/extreme-sfm-underwater-archaeology.html

Limitations
The HERO4 Black provides the user with a highly portable camera capable of recording 4K video, it does however come at a high price which limits the potential of using multiple cameras in an immersive recording system, the cheaper HERO does provide this opportunity however.

360cam

The 360cam kickstarter project is a 360˚ Full HD camera, it is designed to take 360˚ horizontally and 300˚ vertically photographs and video with the systems 3 185˚ fisheye lens 8mpx cameras.
It provides images at a 4096 x 2048 resolution and video at 2046 x 1024 resolution at 30 fps h.264 mp4 and can record video for 60 minutes. The system can stitch images together in real time inside the camera, the files can also be exported to other 360˚ photo and video software. It also has the ability to stream Live video over WiFi.

During the recording process multiple images can be taken at different exposure levels providing high dynamic range photographs, which allows more variation in texture and colour to be recorded which can be used in the study of archaeology and cultural heritage.

The WiFi allows the 360cam to be controlled remotely with Android and iOS mobile phones and tablets.

http://www.360.tv/


One of the accessories for the 360cam is an underwater lens cup allowing 360˚ photographs and video to be taken underwater.
360cam lens cup
It can be easily attached to another kickstarter project, the HERO+ intelligent drone, with an optional mount for an additional $80.

With the 360cam Oculus Rift video player it is possible to view the immersive videos created using the Oculus Rift Virtual Reality headset.
Oculus Rift

The system costs $499.

Potential
The 360cam has great potential for the immersive recording of everything from archaeological excavations to walk-throughs of historic monuments. Its ability to be simply played in an Oculus Rift player adds significantly to the presentation possibilities of the video, although the current Oculus Rift Development Kit is another $350. The underwater lens cap allows the recording of photographs and video underwater adding potential for maritime archaeology.

Whether the overlap of the individual images can be used to create a photogrammetry model of the subject matter of the recording will have to be tested.

Limitations
The cameras of the 360cam are only 8mpx so the images provided would be of a much lower size than the similar Panono Camera.

Only a mount for the HERO+ drone can be purchased, but a mount for other UAVs could be printed using a 3D printer or manufactured in another way.

Eye Mirror 360º Lens

The Eye Mirror is a series of panoramic lenses that can be attached to existing cameras allowing a 360º view to be recorded, it was funded as a Kickstarter Project. The images/videos can be processed in real time in the web browser version of the software or the Android or iOS app,
producing a rectangular 360º product. The 360 lens video publisher software gives the ability to sharpen, brighten, add contrast and reduce video noise and output the video as a flv, mov or avi file in various compression ratios. The software costs $99.

Eye Mirror
The Eye Mirror attaches to a DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex), video cameras and underwater cameras, it screws into the camera filter thread on most cameras although adapters are available.

GP 360
The GP 360 is designed to work with the GoPro series of camera, although a modification to the GoPro is required.

5a7382d73389a674307f09daba35d489_large

It cost $249.

Wet Lens
This is a sealed version of the lens designed for underwater work and can be screwed onto the front of many underwater cameras.

It costs $450.

Potential
The system provides the ability to record 360º photographs/videos with existing cameras, enabling the immersive viewing of both Archaeology site and Cultural Heritage. The created photos/videos can be viewed in a number of ways including the Oculus Reality VR (Virtual Reality) headset.

Limitations
In order to use the GoPro lens the camera lens needs to be replaced with a custom replacement lens provided by the company, although if damage is sustained during the process the company will fix the camera, or the company will do the replacement for a fee of £40. A firmware update needs to also be conducted.

Leap motion controller

The Leap motion controller is a USB device that uses LEDs (light emitting diodes) and camera sensors to scan an area above the device tracking the movement of both hands and 10 fingers and translating their movement to the computer. The Leap Motion App Store has over 200 apps which interact with the software, including

An additional mount can be purchased which connects the Leap to the front of an Oculus rift allowing the control of a virtual environment.

The Leap Motion Controller costs €89.99, an additional mount for the Oculus Rift can be purchased for an additional €14.99 or together for €96.99. While an HP Leap Motion Keyboard can be purchased for €99.99.

Example
The potential of the Leap in the field of Spatial Augmented Reality within a museum environment has already been demonstrated with the MANAO Project as part of the V-MUST Project (Virtual Museum Transnational Network) where a Leap Motion Controller detects a finger that is pointed at an object replicating a virtual torch, the outline of the torch is displayed on the object using a video project which projects the original colours onto the surface of the object.
manao-capteur-en_large
This has already been used in the Allard Pierson Museum in Amsterdam as part of the Keys2Rome international exhibition, it can be seen at 1 minute 22 seconds in the following video.

Potential
The Leap has great potential for the control of both GIS and 3D modelling software where the movement and rotation of views could be controlled with simple hand movements. But it also has the ability to add interaction into a virtual reality environment by combining it with a system such as the Oculus Rift where immersive environments created from other recording techniques could be interacted with.

It is slightly larger than a USB stick and plugs into a USB cable with no other power requirements, so is very portable.

Limitations
The Leap is designed to read hand and finger movement, this of course limits what it can read unlike the Microsoft Kinect which can read whole body movement.

Raspberry Pi Camera Module

Although the Raspberry Pi itself comes with no digital recording capabilities out of the box, for another £25 the camera module can be purchased and used to record video at 1080p30, 720p60 and VGA90 modes and images can be captured with its 5 megapixel camera.
http://www.raspberrypi.org/products/camera-module/
Camera Module
This has been to create a body scanner with 40 Raspberry Pis and cameras.
http://www.raspberrypi.org/pi-3d-scanner-a-diy-body-scanner/
http://www.pi3dscan.com/
Body Scanner
This has had some fairly impressive results using the free Autodesk recap software.

The camera module also costs around £25.